Courtesy of: www.ivis.org

 

Canine Adenovirus 2 Infection

This virus is associated with respiratory disease (see Infectious Canine Tracheobronchitis).

 

 

Infectious Canine Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough)

Infectious canine tracheobronchitis a highly contagious disease which is caused primarily by viruses or Bordetella bronchiseptica.

Etiology

Canine parainfluenza type 2 virus, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus 2 or Bordetella bronchiseptica are considered the primary agents of infectious canine tracheobronchitis. Canine reoviruses (three serotypes), canine herpesvirus and canine adenovirus 1 (the cause of infectious canine hepatitis) have a questionable role. Bordetella bronchiseptica can have a primary role, or a secondary role to the aforementioned viruses. Other bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae may be secondary invaders. Mycoplasmas are of doubtful significance. Parainfluenza type 2 infection with secondary invasion by Bordetella bronchiseptica can be particularly severe.

Distribution/Occurrence

The disease is widespread and is usually associated with the bringing together of dogs from various sources as, e.g., in clinics, hospitals, boarding kennels and dog shows.

Clinical Features

The incubation period ranges from 3 - 10 days and the course 7 - 10 days. Clinical signs include a harsh dry cough, anorexia, nasal discharge and in some cases pneumonia. If the disease becomes severe there may be a purulent nasal discharge, fever, a productive cough and evidence of bronchopneumonia. The complicated disease can be fatal in puppies and sometimes leave older dogs with chronic bronchitis.

Diagnosis
  • A diagnosis is usually made on the history and the characteristic clinical signs. Laboratory diagnosis is confirmatory although it is frequently not carried out.
  • If the infection proceeds to pneumonia, a tracheal wash is submitted for viral and bacterial isolation and identification. Virus isolations can also be made from nasal swabs.
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be performed on significant bacterial isolates.
  • Although serologic tests are available for viral antibodies, they are not usually carried out.
Treatment
  • For severe infections an antimicrobial drug for secondary bacteria, preferably based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests. A trimethoprim-sulfonamide or amoxicillin have been effective.
  • Cough suppressants if indicated.
  • General supportive therapy.
Control
  • Isolation of infected animals.
  • Vaccination against parainfluenza type 2 virus, canine adenovirus 1 and B. bronchiseptica is recommended. Various vaccines are available, including intranasal ones.

 

Bill & Wendy Johnson
Mount Airy, NC 27030
(336) 786-8391

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